Sunday, February 29, 2004

Morocco, Decline of traditional government (1830 - 1912)

During the French invasion of Algeria in 1830, the sultan of Morocco, Moulay (Mawlay) Abd ar-Rahman (1822 - 59), briefly sent troops to occupy Tlemcen but withdrew them after French protests. The Algerian leader Abdelkader in 1844 took refuge from the French in Morocco. A Moroccan army was sent to the Algerian frontier; the French bombarded Tangier on August 4, 1844, and Essaouira (Mogador) on August

Saturday, February 28, 2004

Arabia, History Of, The Hejaz

The Meccan sharifs were merely the nominees of Egypt until 1840, when the Egyptians evacuated Arabia. Thereafter the sharifs were usually semiautonomous beside the Ottoman governors of the Hejaz. Improved communications after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 allowed the Ottoman Empire to send troops by sea to Arabia. An attempt to establish direct administration

Friday, February 27, 2004

Alcott, Louisa May

A daughter of the transcendentalist Bronson Alcott, Louisa spent most of her life in Boston and Concord, Massachusetts, where she grew up in the company of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Theodore Parker, and Henry David Thoreau. Her education was largely

Thursday, February 26, 2004

Canada East

Settled primarily by French Canadians who wanted to preserve their distinctive identity and cultural traditions, Canada East was reluctant to join the proposed confederation

Wednesday, February 25, 2004

Mauna Loa

Volcano, south-central Hawaii Island, Hawaii, U.S., and a part of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (established as Hawaii National Park in 1916). One of the largest single mountain masses in the world, Mauna Loa (meaning �long mountain�) rises to 13,678 feet (4,169 m) above sea level. Its dome is 75 miles (120 km) long and 64 miles (103 km) wide, and its lava flows occupy more than 2,000 square miles (5,120 square km) of the island. Mokuaweoweo,

Tuesday, February 24, 2004

Nahuel Huap�, Lake

Largest lake (210 sq mi [544 sq km]) and most popular resort area in Argentina's lake district, lying in the wooded eastern foothills of the Andes at an altitude of 2,516 ft (767 m). Nahuel Huap� (Araucanian Indian for �island of the jaguars�) was discovered in 1670 by the Jesuit priest Nicol�s Mascardi, who built a chapel on the lake's Huemul Peninsula and established an Indian reducci�n (work mission).

Monday, February 23, 2004

Nahuel Huap�, Lake

A soft, silvery-white or grayish metal in Group IVa of the periodic table. Lead is very malleable, ductile, and dense and is a poor conductor of electricity. Known in antiquity and believed by the alchemists to be the oldest of metals, lead is highly durable and resistant to corrosion, as is indicated by the continuing use of lead water pipes installed by the ancient

Sunday, February 22, 2004


Essential to aerobatic technique is the ability to fly an aircraft inverted (upside down), which was first demonstrated on September 1, 1913, by the Frenchman Adolphe P�goud, test pilot for aviator Louis Bl�riot. P�goud also flew other advanced maneuvers as part of a research program. Other aerobatic innovators include the Russian military pilot Petr Nesterov, who was

Saturday, February 21, 2004

Force, Line Of

In physics, path followed by an electric charge free to move in an electric field or a mass free to move in a gravitational field, or generally any appropriate test particle in a given force field. More abstractly, lines of force are lines in any such force field the tangent of which at any point gives the field direction at that point and the density of which gives the

Friday, February 20, 2004

Yadin, Yigael

Yadin, the son of an archaeologist, was educated at Hebrew University (M.A., 1945; Ph.D., 1955). He was a member of the Haganah military organization from 1932 to 1948 and served as chief of the general staff of the Israel Defense Forces from 1949 to

Thursday, February 19, 2004

Alexander Balas

The pretended son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, he won the Seleucid throne with the help of mercenaries, challenging and slaying Demetrius I Soter, the direct Seleucid heir. With the support of the Roman Senate and the Egyptian Ptolemaic dynasty, he ruled the remains of the Seleucid

Wednesday, February 18, 2004

Zahran, Az-

Also spelled �Dhahran, � town, northeastern Saudi Arabia, in the Dammam oil field, just south of the Persian Gulf port of ad-Dammam. Near the scene of the original discovery of oil in Saudi Arabia in 1938, it is now a modern community that serves as the administrative headquarters of the Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco). A major United States Air Force Base was built in 1945 and continues in use. The town

Tuesday, February 17, 2004

Epistemology, �Our knowledge of the external world�

Most people have noticed that vision can play tricks on them. A straight stick put in water looks bent to them, but they know it is not; railroad tracks are seen to be converging in the distance, yet one knows that they are not; the wheels of wagons on a movie screen appear to be going backward, but one knows that they are not; and the pages of English-language books reflected

Monday, February 16, 2004


Congo's many ethnic groups and regions have developed a mosaic of traditional arts, including painting, sculpture, music, and dance. There has been a tendency to classify sculpture and carving according to the styles of the areas from which they originate. The South-West Group is represented by the Kongo people and is known for stone and nail-studded statues; the Yaka,

Saturday, February 14, 2004

Sankt Veit

Also called �Sankt Veit An Der Glan, � town, K�rnten Bundesland (federal state), southern Austria. It lies along the Glan River north of Klagenfurt. Sankt Veit was the capital of the duchy of K�rnten (Carinthia) until 1518. Its town hall dates from 1468 and its old ducal castle from the 15th to 16th century. The Romanesque parish church was altered in the Gothic style in the 14th century. There are several castles in the vicinity,

Friday, February 13, 2004

Fischer, Kuno

With other writings on Gotthold Lessing, Friedrich Schiller, and J.W. von Goethe, Fischer contributed to the philosophy of aesthetics. Eventually he subscribed to Hegelian

Thursday, February 12, 2004

Amboseli National Park

Formerly �Masai Amboseli Game Reserve, � national park, southern Kenya, East Africa. Amboseli was originally established as a game reserve in 1948 and covered 1,259 sq mi (3,261 sq km), northwest of Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. Within it were distinguished seven habitats: open plains, acacia woodland, lava-strewn thorn-bush country, swamp, marshland, the Amboseli lake bed, and the slopes of Oldoinyo Orok. The reserve was also occupied

Wednesday, February 11, 2004


City, Bavaria Land (state), extreme southern Germany. It lies along the Lech River, at the east foot of the Allg�u Alps, near the Austrian border. The site of a Roman frontier station, the city developed around the Benedictine abbey of St. Magnus (founded 628) and was chartered about 1294. A treaty concluded there in 1745 led to the withdrawal of Bavaria from the War of the Austrian Succession.

Tuesday, February 10, 2004

Marsh Frog

(Rana ridibunda), large aquatic frog (family Ranidae), similar in appearance and habits to the closely related pool frog (R. lessonae) and the edible frog (R. esculenta). In Europe they are all called green frogs. The marsh frog inhabits marshes, river banks, and lake edges in Europe and western Asia. About 9 to 13 cm (3.5 to 5 inches) long, it is brown or green, with or without irregular black

Monday, February 09, 2004


In Spanish-American literature, short prose sketch in which a historical incident is related in an imaginative and literary style. An evocation of the South American past, the tradici�n may be set in the precolonial era, the age of discovery and conquest, the prerevolutionary era of romance and political intrigue, or the time of the struggle for self-determination

Sunday, February 08, 2004

Ferrari, Lodovico

From a poor family, Ferrari was taken into the service of the noted Italian mathematician Gerolamo Cardano as

Saturday, February 07, 2004

Castro Alves, Ant�nio De

While still a student Castro Alves produced a play that brought him to the attention of Jos� de Alencar and Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, Brazilian literary leaders. Having studied for the law, he soon became a dominant figure

Friday, February 06, 2004

Jeffreys (of Wem), George Jeffreys, 1st Baron

Born into the Welsh gentry, Jeffreys was admitted to the bar in 1668, and in

Thursday, February 05, 2004

Hardanger Plateau

Also called �Vidda� plateau in Hordaland and Buskerud fylker (counties), southwestern Norway. The largest peneplain (an eroded, almost level plain) in Europe, it has an area of about 2,500 square miles (6,500 square km) and an average elevation of 3,500 feet (1,100 m). It has many lakes and rivers, which, draining westward, drop in huge waterfalls such as the V�rings Falls (476 feet). The Oslo - Bergen Railroad and a main east - west

Wednesday, February 04, 2004

Rhynie Plants

Several genera of fossil plants uncovered near Rhynie, Aberdeen, Scot., of significance in tracing the evolution of vascular plants (plants with special cells that conduct water and food). The rocks containing these fossils are of Devonian age (the Devonian Period lasted from 408 to 360 million years ago) and are part of a geological formation called the Old Red

Tuesday, February 03, 2004

Guzm�n, Mart�n Luis

After studying law at the National Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City, Guzm�n joined the Mexican Revolution and served as a colonel in the revolutionary forces of Pancho Villa. From 1914 to 1934, he lived in exile in Madrid and New York

Monday, February 02, 2004

Ann Arbor

City, seat (1827) of Washtenaw county, southeastern Michigan, U.S., on the Huron River. John Allen and Elisha W. Rumsey founded the community in 1824, which they named for their wives (both called Ann) and the local natural groves, or arbors. The settlement developed as an agricultural trading centre after the arrival in 1839 of the Michigan Central Railroad, which connected it with Detroit

Sunday, February 01, 2004

World War I, Peace moves and U.S. policy to February 1917

There were few efforts by any of the Central or Allied Powers to achieve a negotiated peace in the first two years of the war. By 1916 the most promising signs for peace seemed to exist only in the intentions of two statesmen in power - the German chancellor Bethmann and the U.S. president Woodrow Wilson. Wilson, having proclaimed the neutrality of the United States in August