Monday, May 31, 2004

Abdominal Muscle

The first three muscle layers

Sunday, May 30, 2004

Gottschalk Of Orbais

Of noble birth, Gottschalk was an oblate (i.e., a child dedicated to monastic life by its parents) in the Benedictine abbey of Fulda. Over the objection of his abbot and eventual lifelong enemy, Rabanus

Saturday, May 29, 2004

Quin, James

Quin made his first stage appearance at the Smock Alley Theatre, Dublin, in 1712. He was engaged for small parts at London's Drury Lane Theatre, where his remarkable memory enabled him to fill in at short notice as Bajazet in Nicholas Rowe's Tamerlane, in which he had great success.

Friday, May 28, 2004


Seaside resort and fishing port, Zuid-Holland provincie, western Netherlands, on the North Sea. Fishing has been an occupation there since the 14th century. Charles II embarked from Scheveningen to return to England at the Restoration (1660), and King William I landed nearby in 1813. Scheveningen's wide sandy beaches have made it the most popular of the Dutch coastal resorts since

Thursday, May 27, 2004

Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway

Shipping route paralleling the eastern coast of the United States, serving ports from Boston to Key West, Fla. It is part of the Intracoastal Waterway (q.v.).

Wednesday, May 26, 2004


In the monotheistic Western religions, the devil is viewed as a fallen angel who in pride has tried to usurp the position of

Tuesday, May 25, 2004

Madog Ab Owain Gwynedd

A quarrel among Owain's sons over the distribution of their late father's estate led Madog to sail to Ireland and then westward. In a year or so he returned to Wales and assembled a group to colonize the land he had discovered. The party sailed west in 10 ships and was

Monday, May 24, 2004

Bruce, Blanche K(elso)

The son of a slave mother and white planter father, Bruce was well educated as a youth. After the American Civil War, he moved to Mississippi, where in 1869 he became a supervisor of elections. By 1870 he was an emerging figure in state politics. After serving as sergeant

Sunday, May 23, 2004


Also spelled �tiercet� a unit or group of three lines of verse, usually containing rhyme, as in William Shakespeare's �The Phoenix and the Turtle�: Death is now the phoenix' nest; And the turtle's loyal breastTo eternity doth rest,

Saturday, May 22, 2004

Frundsberg, Georg Von

In 1499 Frundsberg took part in Maximilian's struggle against the Swiss, and, in the same year, he was among the imperial troops sent to assist Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan,

Friday, May 21, 2004

Puerto Rico, Flag Of

In the late 19th century, as pro-independence sentiment grew in the Caribbean islands under Spanish dominion, many activists in Cuba and Puerto Rico were exiled to the United States or elsewhere. In New York City a flag was chosen in exile by the Puerto Rican section of the Cuban Revolutionary Party on December 22, 1895. The design was simply the Cuban flag with a reversal of the

Thursday, May 20, 2004


P. pititache, the native Mexican

Wednesday, May 19, 2004


An amino acid obtainable by hydrolysis of many common proteins but particularly abundant in protamines and histones, proteins associated with nucleic acids. First isolated from animal horn (1895), arginine plays an important role in mammals in the synthesis of urea, the principal form in which these species excrete nitrogen. Arginine is one of several nonessential

Tuesday, May 18, 2004

Altai Mountains

The system has three main subdivisions: the Altai proper (formerly

Monday, May 17, 2004

Leaning Tower Of Pisa

Italian �Torre Pendente di Pisa � medieval structure in Pisa, Italy, that is famous for the settling of its foundations, which caused it to lean 5.5 degrees (about 15 feet [4.5 metres]) from the perpendicular by the late 20th century. The bell tower, begun in 1173 as the third and final structure of the city's cathedral complex, was designed to stand 185 feet (56 metres) high and was constructed of white marble. Three of its eight stories

Sunday, May 16, 2004

Skelton Glacier

Antarctic glacier situated on the Hillary Coast of Victoria Land, to the northeast of the Cook Mountains, near McMurdo Sound. It flows sluggishly southward into the Ross Ice Shelf. The greatest known thickness of ice along its 39-mi (62-km) length occurs at a point about 30 mi from the tip of its floating terminus. There the ice is about 4,760 ft (1,450 m) thick. The east side of the glacier is covered

Saturday, May 15, 2004

Smith Sound

The sound was discovered in 1616 by William Baffin and named for Sir Thomas Smythe (Smith), promoter of voyages to find a Northwest Passage. It was not until the mid-19th century that any explorer reached

Friday, May 14, 2004


Moundlike hill of poorly sorted drift, mostly sand and gravel, deposited at or near the terminus of a glacier. A kame may be produced either as a delta of a meltwater stream or as an accumulation of debris let down onto the ground surface by the melting glacier. A group of closely associated kames is called a kame field, or kame complex, and may be interspersed with kettles

Thursday, May 13, 2004

Perspective Scenery

In theatre, scenery and the scene design technique that represents three-dimensional space on a flat surface, creating an illusion of reality and an impression of distance. Developed during the Italian Renaissance, perspective scenery applied the newly mastered science of linear perspective and brought the craft of illusion to the Italian stage. An initial

Wednesday, May 12, 2004

Mormon, Book Of

The Book of Mormon relates

Tuesday, May 11, 2004


Also spelled �Babul, �formerly �Barfurush, � city, northern Iran, on the Babol River, about 15 miles (24 km) south of the Caspian Sea. Babol gained importance during the reign (1797 - 1834) of Fath 'Ali Shah, though 'Abbas I (died 1629) had laid out a pleasure garden and summer palace there. The city has paved streets, large and crowded bazaars, well-built houses, and small, handsome mosques and funeral towers. There are some manufacturing activities, but

Monday, May 10, 2004

Byzantine Empire, Cultural revival

Materially, the empire seemed almost beyond hope of recovery in the early 14th century, but spiritually and culturally it showed a remarkable vitality. The church, no longer troubled over the question of union with Rome, grew in prestige and authority. The patriarchs of Constantinople commanded the respect of all the Orthodox churches, even beyond the imperial boundaries;

Sunday, May 09, 2004

Portugal, Conquest and exploration

The idea of expansion into Africa was a logical result of the completion of the Reconquest in the peninsula, and the conquest of Ceuta in North Africa (1415) probably provided the impulse toward further expansion. The simple idea of fighting the Muslims on their own soil was linked with more complicated motives: the desire to explore in a scientific sense, the hope of finding

Saturday, May 08, 2004

Producer Gas

Mixture of flammable gases (principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and nonflammable gases (mainly nitrogen and carbon dioxide) made by the partial combustion of carbonaceous substances, usually coal, in an atmosphere of air and steam. Producer gas has lower heating value than other gaseous fuels, but it can be manufactured with relatively simple equipment;

Friday, May 07, 2004


Also called �Bexhill-on-sea, � town, Rother district, administrative county of East Sussex, historic county of Sussex, England, just west of Hastings on the English Channel. The coastal resort dates from the 1880s, but the old village inland on the cliff top is built around its ancient parish church. A central feature of the resort area is the De la Warr Pavilion, built in the mid-1930s by Bauhaus architects Erich

Thursday, May 06, 2004

Clark, Mark

A graduate (1917) of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., Clark served overseas in World War I. Early in 1942 he became chief of staff of army ground forces. Later that year, as deputy commander in chief

Wednesday, May 05, 2004


When Zangi's father, the governor of Aleppo, was killed in 1094, Zangi fled to Mosul. He served the Seljuq dynasty, and in 1126 the Seljuq sultan, Mahmud II, appointed Zangi governor of Basra. When the 'Abbasid dynasty caliph al-Mustarshid

Tuesday, May 04, 2004

Samuel Of Nehardea

What is known about Samuel's life is a combination of speculation and legend. According to one tradition he may have been a disciple of the Palestinian

Monday, May 03, 2004

Mar�chal, Pierre-sylvain

By profession a lawyer and librarian, Mar�chal was by philosophy a materialist and an atheist. After writing

Sunday, May 02, 2004

Rivi�re, Jacques

Writer, critic, and editor who was a major force in the intellectual life of France in the period immediately following World War I. His most important works were his thoughtful and finely written essays on the arts. In 1912 a collection of these essays was published as �tudes; a second such collection, entitled Nouvelles �tudes (�Further

Saturday, May 01, 2004