Saturday, July 31, 2004

Community Ecology, Climatic effects

The maximum development of greenhouse conditions occurred in the Cretaceous and was probably associated with an increase of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (see geochronology: Cretaceous environment: Paleoclimate). There were no polar ice caps during this time, and land within both the Arctic and Antarctic circles was able to support

Friday, July 30, 2004

Norris - la Guardia Act

(1932), in the history of the United States, legislative act that removed certain legal and judicial barriers against the activities of organized labour. The act declared that the members of labour unions should have �full freedom of association� unmolested by employers, and it made illegal the �yellow-dog� contracts by which employers had forced workers to state that they

Wednesday, July 28, 2004

Athanasius, Saint

Theologian, ecclesiastical statesman, and Egyptian national leader; he was the chief defender of Christian orthodoxy in the 4th-century battle against Arianism, the heresy that the Son of God was a creature of like, but not of the same, substance as God the Father. His important works include The Life of St. Antony and Four Orations

Tuesday, July 27, 2004

Vulgar Latin

Spoken form of non-Classical Latin from which originated the Romance group of languages. Vulgar Latin was primarily the speech of the middle classes in Rome and the Roman provinces; it is derived from Classical Latin but varied across Roman-occupied areas according to the extent of education of the population, communication with Rome, and the original languages

Monday, July 26, 2004

Eclipsing Variable Star

Pair of stars revolving about their common centre of mass in an orbit whose plane passes through or very near the Earth. An observer on the Earth thus sees one member of the binary pass periodically over the face of the other and diminish its light through an eclipse. The star Algol was the first recognized as an eclipsing binary, by John Goodricke, in 1782. Several thousand

Sunday, July 25, 2004

Korea Bay

Korea Bay receives three of the major rivers of North Korea - the Yalu (which rises on Mount Paektu and forms much of the China - North Korea border), the Ch'ongchon, and the Taedong - in addition to a number of China's smaller rivers. The bay

Saturday, July 24, 2004

Race, New World

Detailed descriptions of 17th- and 18th-century colonial history, including analyses of the English attitudes toward the Irish and the persistence of such attitudes in the New World and descriptions of the events leading to the enslavement of Africans, are discussed in Edmund Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom (1975); Theodore Allen, The Invention of the White Race, vol. 2 (1997); Philip D. Morgan, Slave Counterpoint (1998); Winthrop D. Jordan, White over Black (1968); and Gary B. Nash, Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early America, 3rd ed. (1992).

Friday, July 23, 2004

Sore Mouth

Also called �doby mouth, �pustular dermatitis�, or �contagious ecthyma (CE)� viral disease of sheep and goats. Blisters, pustules, ulcers, and scabs form on the lips especially but also on the face and ears. In severe cases sores form inside the mouth. Infections occur in the spring and summer and heal in about a month. Humans who work around the sheep sometimes become infected.

Thursday, July 22, 2004

Arabian Desert

People have inhabited the Arabian Desert since early Pleistocene times. Artifacts have been found widely, including at Neolithic sites in Qatar and Dubai, but are most abundant in the southwestern Rub' al-Khali. Archaeological research sponsored by the Saudi government has uncovered many Paleolithic sites. Remains of cultures from the past 3,000 years occur in many

Tuesday, July 20, 2004

Anaximenes Of Miletus

Anaximenes substituted aer (�mist,� �vapour,� �air�) for his predecessors'

Monday, July 19, 2004


Formerly �(until 1969) Gaberones, � town, capital of Botswana. The seat of government was transferred there from Mafeking (now spelled Mafikeng), South Africa, in 1965, one year before Botswana became independent of Britain. Gaborone is located on the Cape-Zimbabwe railway and is the site of government offices, parliament buildings, health facilities, a thermal power station, and an airport. It is the seat of

Sunday, July 18, 2004


Repulped paper that has been mixed with glue or paste so that it can be molded. The art of making articles of papier-m�ch�, beautifully decorated in Oriental motifs and handsomely lacquered, was known in the East centuries before its introduction in Europe. Molded-paper products were first made in France in the early part of the 18th century and, later, in Germany and England.

Saturday, July 17, 2004

Yellow-green Algae

Members of the division Xanthophyta (about 6,000 species), once classified with the green algae on the basis of similarity of body organization. The Xanthophyta are distinguished by their food reserve (oil), the quantity of b-carotene in their plastids, and motile bodies with unequal flagella. Frequently their cell walls are two overlapping halves. The

Friday, July 16, 2004

Chapelain, Jean

Chapelain's approach was a challenge to others of his day who appealed in doctrinaire fashion to classical Greek authorities. His critical views were advanced primarily in short articles and monographs and in his voluminous correspondence.

Thursday, July 15, 2004


Aries contains no very bright stars. The first point of Aries, or vernal equinox, is an intersection of the

Wednesday, July 14, 2004



Tuesday, July 13, 2004


There are two major types of dysentery: bacillary and amebic, caused, respectively, by bacteria and amoebas. Bacillary dysentery, or shigellosis, is caused by bacilli of the genus Shigella. Symptomatically,

Monday, July 12, 2004

Calendar Of 2000

Following four months of intensive negotiations, the Austrian People's Party agrees to form a coalition with the Freedom Party of Austria (FP�), led by ultranationalist J�rg Haider; the FP�'s success has clouded Austrian politics, and on January 31 the European Union had threatened to break with Austria if the right-wingers were allowed to participate in the

Sunday, July 11, 2004

Wien, Wilhelm

Wien obtained his doctorate at the University of Berlin in 1886 and soon began to work on the problem of

Saturday, July 10, 2004

Omalius D'halloy, Jean-baptiste-julien D'

D'Omalius was educated first in Li�ge and afterward in Paris. While a youth he became interested in geology (over the protests of his parents) and, having an independent income, was able to devote his energies to geologic researches. As early as 1808 he communicated

Friday, July 09, 2004

Ryukyu Trench

Also called �Nansei-Shoto Trench� deep ocean trench running north along the eastern edge of the Ryukyu Islands (Japan) in the Philippine Sea, between Taiwan and the Japanese archipelago. The Ryukyu Trench reaches a maximum depth of 24,629 feet (7,507 m) about 60 miles (90 km) south of Okinawa. It is 1,398 miles (2,250 km) long, and its mean width is 37 miles (60 km). Its floor area extends over some 52,000 square miles (135,000 square km), mostly covered by red

Thursday, July 08, 2004


The most common pyroxene mineral (a silicate of calcium, magnesium, iron, titanium, and aluminum). It occurs chiefly as thick, tabular crystals in basalts, gabbros, andesites, and various other dark-coloured igneous rocks. It also is a common constituent of lunar basalts and meteorites rich in basaltic material. Augites with a composition similar to that of diopside

Wednesday, July 07, 2004


The all�e normally passed through a planted boscage (a small wood); in the 17th century the boscage was square-trimmed at the sides and on top; later the sides were

Tuesday, July 06, 2004

Islam, The legacy of Muhammad

From the very beginning of Islam, Muhammad had inculcated a sense of brotherhood and a bond of faith among his followers, both of which helped to develop among them a feeling of close relationship that was accentuated by their experiences of persecution as a nascent community in Mecca. The strong attachment to the tenets of the Qur'anic revelation and the conspicuous

Monday, July 05, 2004

Catechetical School

In early Christianity, a type of educational institution with a curriculum directed toward inquirers (especially those trained in the Greek paideia, or educational system) whose aim was to gain a greater knowledge of Christianity and eventually, perhaps, baptism into the Christian community. Located in such centres as Alexandria, the catechetical schools became

Sunday, July 04, 2004

Sosa, Sammy

As a child, Sosa worked at a number of jobs, including shining shoes, to help support his family following his father's death. At the age

Saturday, July 03, 2004

Biblical Literature, The New Testament Apocryphal writings

This section will classify these documents in relation to their literary forms: gospels, acts, letters, and apocalypses.

Friday, July 02, 2004

Agrippina The Younger

Agrippina was the daughter of the elder Agrippina, sister of the emperor Gaius, or Caligula (37 - 41), and wife of the emperor Claudius (41 - 54). She had been exiled in 39 for taking part in a conspiracy against Gaius but was allowed to return to Rome in 41. Her first husband, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus,

Thursday, July 01, 2004


Ramananda left home as a youth and became a sannyasin (ascetic) before settling in Varanasi (Benares) to study Vedic texts, Ramanuja's philosophy,