Thursday, September 30, 2004

Adam And Eve

In the Bible, there are two accounts of their creation. According to the Priestly (P) history of the 5th or 6th century BC (Genesis 1:1 - 2:4), God on the sixth day of Creation created all the living creatures and, �in his own image,� man both �male and female.� God then blessed the couple, told them

Wednesday, September 29, 2004

Good Shepherd Sister

Member of �The Religious of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd (R.G.S.)�, also called �Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd� a Roman Catholic order of religious devoted particularly to the care, rehabilitation, and education of girls and young women who have demonstrated delinquent behaviour. The congregation traces its history to an order founded by St. John Eudes in 1641 at Caen, Fr. This order, known as the Religious of Our Lady of Charity of the Refuge, was virtually destroyed during the French

Tuesday, September 28, 2004

La Crosse

City, seat (1851) of La Crosse county, western Wisconsin, U.S. It lies along the Mississippi River at the influx of the Black and La Crosse rivers, 129 miles (208 km) northwest of Madison. The settlement developed around a trading post (1841) on a site that French explorers named Prairie la Crosse, after the game of lacrosse played by the Indians there. A natural river port, it became an important

Monday, September 27, 2004

Argentina, Other recreation

A majority of Argentines enjoy viewing televised sporting events as well as dramas, game shows, and other television programs, including North American comedies dubbed into Spanish. Telenovelas (soap operas) made in Argentina and other Latin American countries are particularly popular, and many locally produced serials are exported throughout the region. Movies,

Sunday, September 26, 2004

Syria, The French mandate

In June 1920 a French ultimatum demanding Syrian recognition of the mandate was followed by a French occupation and the expulsion in July of Faysal. In July 1922 the League of Nations approved the texts of the French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon. Lebanon had already, in August 1920, been declared a separate state, with the addition of Beirut, Tripoli, and certain other districts, to

Saturday, September 25, 2004

Gambier Islands

French ��les Gambier, �also called �Mangareva Islands, � southeasternmost extension of the Tuamotu Archipelago of French Polynesia in the central South Pacific, nearly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) east-southeast of Tahiti. The principal inhabited group of the Gambiers comprises the volcanic islets Mangareva (Magareva), Taravai, Akamaru, and Aukena. Mangareva, which is 5 miles (8 km) long and encircled by a barrier reef, rises to approximately

Friday, September 24, 2004

Chelan, Lake

Lake, north-central Washington, U.S., extending 55 miles (88 km) through a glacier-carved valley on the eastern edge of the Cascade Range. Lying just outside North Cascades National Park near the confluence of the Methow and Columbia rivers, Lake Chelan is - at a depth of 1,486 feet (453 metres) - the third-deepest lake in the United States. The southeastern end of the lake, where the small towns

Thursday, September 23, 2004

Schacht, Hjalmar

Appointed vice director of the Dresdner Bank in 1908, Schacht served

Wednesday, September 22, 2004

Nova Scotia, Cultural life

Its geographic position has kept Nova Scotia somewhat removed from the mainstream of Canadian life, centred in Ontario and Quebec. The improvement of transportation, however, and the growing impact of the nationwide communications media have brought the province closer to the mainstream, enhancing a modern life-style in the province and eroding some features

Tuesday, September 21, 2004


In politics and government, a formal expression of opinion or will that indicates approval or disapproval of a proposal, motion, or candidate for office. See election.

Monday, September 20, 2004

Drang Nach Osten

The medieval Drang nach Osten was part

Sunday, September 19, 2004

Chambord, Henri Dieudonn� D'artois, Count (comte) De, Duke (duc) De Bordeaux

The posthumous son of the assassinated Charles-Ferdinand, Duke de Berry, and grandson of King Charles X, he was forced to flee France in 1830 when his cousin Louis-Philippe seized the throne. He spent most of his young life in Austria, where

Saturday, September 18, 2004


Roman province created out of the former kingdom of the Nabataeans and the adjacent Syrian cities of Gerasa and Philadelphia (modern Jarash and 'Amman, Jordan, respectively), after the formal annexation of the Nabataean kingdom by the Roman emperor Trajan in AD 105. The province was bounded by the western coast of the Sinai Peninsula, the present Syrian-Lebanese border to

Friday, September 17, 2004

China, Soils

Because of its vast and diverse climatic conditions, China has a wide variety of soils. Indeed, all the soils of the Eurasian continent, except the soils of the tundra and the highly leached podzolic-gley soils of the northern taiga, are found in China. As a result of the climatic differences between the drier and cooler North and the wetter and hotter South, soils may

Thursday, September 16, 2004

Insurance, Liability insurance

There are at least four major types of liability insurance contracts:

Wednesday, September 15, 2004

Cairo, The old and new quarters

Cairo is fan-shaped, narrowest in the south, where the river valley is wedged between desert escarpments, and widest in the north, where the valley blends into the delta. Over the centuries the city expanded westward as a receding river channel left land flood-free. In response to heightened demand, however, the city also has been elongated to the north and south and has

Tuesday, September 14, 2004


Samsuditana, the last king of the 1st dynasty of Babylon (reigned

Monday, September 13, 2004

Earth Sciences, Knowledge of the tides

By contrast, the tides along the eastern shores of Asia generally have a considerable range and were the subject of close observation and much speculation among

Sunday, September 12, 2004

Epistemology, Tautological versus significant propositions

A proposition is said to be tautological if its constituent terms repeat themselves or if they can be reduced to terms that do, so that the proposition is of the form �a = a.� In such a case the proposition is said to be trivial and empty of cognitive import. A proposition is said to be significant if its constituent terms are such that the proposition does provide new information

Saturday, September 11, 2004

Lipton, Sir Thomas Johnstone, 1st Baronet

Lipton, whose Irish parents ran a small grocery, immigrated to the United States in 1865. After five years at various jobs, he returned to Glasgow and opened a small provision shop, whose success led him to open other shops throughout the United Kingdom. To supply his retail

Friday, September 10, 2004

World War I, The strategy of the Western Allies, 1914

For some 30 years after 1870, considering the likelihood of another German war, the French high command had subscribed to the strategy of an initial defensive to be followed by a counterstroke against the expected invasion: a great system of fortresses was created on the frontier, but gaps were left in order to �canalize� the German attack. France's alliance with Russia and

Thursday, September 09, 2004


Provincia, in the comunidad aut�noma (�autonomous community�) of Valencia, eastern Spain. It is situated along the Mediterranean Sea and has an area of 4,156 square miles (10,763 square km). The province centres on the coastal plain of the Gulf of Valencia; it is limited to the south by the mountains of northern Alicante and less clearly to the north by the watershed of the R�o Turia. Interior

Wednesday, September 08, 2004

Jefferson, Thomas, Life at Monticello

The domestic context at Monticello is the subject of several important books. Sarah N. Randolph, The Domestic Life of Thomas Jefferson (1871, reprinted 1978), provides an affectionate portrait by his descendants. Jack McLaughlin, Jefferson and Monticello: The Biography of a Builder (1988, reissued 1990), goes beyond architectural issues to explore the daily lives of all the residents on the mountain. Elizabeth Langhorne, Monticello: A Family Story (1987, reissued 1989), focuses on the white residents. Edwin Morris Betts (ed.), Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book (1953, reprinted 1987), reproduces Jefferson's plantation records. Susan R. Stein, The Worlds of Thomas Jefferson at Monticello (1993), recovers the material objects Jefferson gathered inside the mansion. Merrill D. Peterson (ed.), Visitors to Monticello (1989), reproduces the accounts of firsthand observers.

Tuesday, September 07, 2004

Carter, Jimmy

At the conclusion of the president's term, the Carters returned to their hometown. Rosalynn, who had taken an active role as first lady - not only acting as an adviser to the president but also attending cabinet meetings when the subjects under consideration were of interest to her - joined her husband in establishing the Carter Presidential Center in Atlanta, which included a presidential library and museum. Carter served as a sort of diplomat without portfolio in various conflicts in a number of countries - including Nicaragua (where he successfully promoted the return of the Miskito Indians to their homeland), Panama (where he observed and reported illegal voting procedures), and Ethiopia (where he attempted to mediate a settlement with the Eritrean People's Liberation Force). He was particularly active in this role in 1994, negotiating with North Korea to end nuclear weapons development there, with Haiti to effect a peaceful transfer of power, and with Bosnian Serbs and Muslims to broker a short-lived cease-fire. His efforts on behalf of international peace and his highly visible participation in building homes for the poor through Habitat for Humanity established in the public mind a much more favourable image of Carter than had been the case during his presidency. After leaving office, Carter also became a prolific author, writing on a variety of topics, including his presidency, the Middle East, and his Christian faith. He also wrote a collection of poetry.

Monday, September 06, 2004

Fracastoro, Girolamo

At the University of Padua Fracastoro was a colleague of the astronomer Copernicus. As a physician, he maintained

Sunday, September 05, 2004

Ram Allah

Also spelled �Ramallah, � town, central Palestine, adjacent to the town of Al-Birah (east) and north of Jerusalem. Ram Allah (Arabic: �Height of God�) has since the Six-Day War of 1967 been under Israeli administration as part of the West Bank territory. An ancient settlement, it has buildings incorporating masonry from the time of Herod the Great (reigned 37 - 4 BC), but no complete structure antedates the Crusades of

Saturday, September 04, 2004

Briand, Aristide

As a law student, Briand became associated with left-wing causes,

Friday, September 03, 2004


Also spelled �Brigittine�, member of �Order of the Most Holy Savior (O.SS.S.)� a religious order of cloistered nuns founded by St. Bridget of Sweden in 1344 and approved by Pope Urban V in 1370. Bridget believed that she was called by Christ to found a strictly disciplined religious order that would contribute to the reform of monastic life. She went to Rome to gain approval of her order and died there in 1373. Her foundation began to grow and contributed greatly

Thursday, September 02, 2004

Kubitschek, Juscelino

Kubitschek attended the Diamantina Seminary, worked his way through medical school at the University of Minas Gerais (graduated 1927), and did internships in surgery in Paris, Vienna, and Berlin. He became head of

Wednesday, September 01, 2004

Submarine Fan

Accumulation of land-derived sediment on the deep seafloor; in configuration, a fan is like the section of a very low cone, with its apex at the lower mouth of a submarine canyon incised into a continental slope. Submarine canyons have steep courses with high walls and funnel occasional dense slurries of water and terrigenous sediment (turbidity currents) to the abyssal