Tuesday, November 30, 2004


Trade name for an insecticide composed of the most toxic of the isomeric forms of benzene hexachloride (q.v.).

Monday, November 29, 2004

Brace, Charles Loring

The descendant of a Hartford family long prominent in religious and political life, Brace was educated at Yale University and at Union Theological Seminary in New York City. Asked

Sunday, November 28, 2004

Computers, UNIVAC

After leaving the Moore School, Eckert and Mauchly struggled to obtain capital to build their latest design, a computer they called the Universal Automatic Computer, or UNIVAC. (In the meantime, they contracted with the Northrop Corporation to build the Binary Automatic Computer, or BINAC, which, when completed in 1949, became the first American stored-program computer.)

Saturday, November 27, 2004

Riss Glacial Stage

Major division of Pleistocene time and deposits (1,600,000 to 10,000 years ago) in Alpine Europe. The Riss Glacial Stage, during which mountain glaciers descended from the highlands, followed the Mindel-Riss Interglacial Stage and preceded the Riss-W�rm Interglacial Stage, both periods of relatively moderate climatic conditions. The Riss is correlated with the Gipping Glacial

Friday, November 26, 2004

Augustus, Caesar

The death in 12 BC of Lepidus enabled Augustus finally to succeed him as the official head of the Roman religion, the chief priest (pontifex maximus). In the same year, Agrippa, too, died. Augustus compelled his widow, Julia, to marry Tiberius against both their wishes. During the next three years, however, Tiberius was away in the field, reducing Pannonia (Yugoslavia and Hungary)

Thursday, November 25, 2004

Pharmaceutical Industry, Vaccines

Vaccines, viral or bacterial preparations used to induce active immunity, may be divided into three groups: toxoids, bacterial vaccines, and virus vaccines. Toxoids, such as diphtheria and tetanus toxoid, can be prepared only from toxin-producing bacteria. To produce diphtheria toxoid, for example, diphtheria bacilli are cultured under artificial conditions in

Wednesday, November 24, 2004

Muggleton, Lodowick

After claiming to have had spiritual revelations, beginning in 1651, Muggleton and his cousin John Reeve announced themselves as the two prophetic witnesses referred to in Revelations 11:3. Their book, A Transcendent

Tuesday, November 23, 2004

Police Technology

Throughout the 20th century, improvements and innovations have been made in police transportation, communications, weaponry, laboratory facilities, and other areas, but these have scarcely more than kept pace with the pressures generated by denser urban populations, greater sophistication

Monday, November 22, 2004

Augustine, Saint

Fifteen years after Augustine wrote the Confessions, at a time when he was bringing to a close (and invoking government power to do so) his long struggle with the Donatists but before he had worked himself up to action against the Pelagians, the Roman world was shaken by news of a military action in Italy. A ragtag army under the leadership of Alaric, a general

Sunday, November 21, 2004


In the mythology of India, the lord of death. The Vedas describe him as the first man who died, blazing the path of mortality down which all men have since followed. He is the guardian of the south (the region of death) and presides over the resting place of the dead, which is located in the south under the earth. In the Vedas Yama was represented as a cheerful king of the departed

Saturday, November 20, 2004

Murillo, Bartolom� Esteban

Among Murillo's earliest works is the Virgin of the Rosary (c. 1642). In the vestigial

Friday, November 19, 2004

Ikot Abasi

Also called �Opobo, �formerly �Egwanga, � port town, Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. The town lies near the mouth of the Imo (Opobo) River. Situated at a break in the mangrove swamps and rain forest of the eastern Niger River delta, it served in the 19th century as a collecting point for slaves. In 1870 Jubo Jubogha, a former Igbo (Ibo) slave and ruler of the Anna Pepple house of Bonny (28 miles [45 km] west-southwest), came to Ikot Abasi

Thursday, November 18, 2004


Abbreviation of Messier catalog (q.v.), an astronomical listing.

Wednesday, November 17, 2004


A chronic disorder of the lungs in which inflamed airways are prone to constrict, causing episodes of breathlessness, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness that range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Inflamed airways become hypersensitive to a variety of stimuli, including dust mites, animal dander, pollen, air pollution, cigarette smoke, medications,

Tuesday, November 16, 2004


Hinduized kingdom in eastern Java, established about the 11th century. Little is known of the kingdom. According to the Pararaton (�Book of Kings�), a mighty king of eastern Java, Airlangga, divided his kingdom between his two sons before he died in 1049: the western part was called Kadiri, or Panjalu, with Daha as its capital, while the eastern part was called Janggala. Jayabhaya of

Monday, November 15, 2004

Bearded Seal

(Erignathus barbatus), nonmigratory seal of the family Phocidae, distinguished by the bushy, bristly whiskers for which it is named; it is also known as �squareflipper� after the rectangular shape of the foreflipper. Highly valued by Eskimos for its hide, meat, and blubber, the bearded seal is a grayish or yellow-brown animal that lives alone or in small groups in coastal

Sunday, November 14, 2004

Razin, Stenka

Born into a well-to-do Don Cossack family, Stenka Razin grew up amid the tension caused by the inability of runaway serfs, who were continually escaping from Poland and Russia to the Don Cossack area, to find land and comfortably

Saturday, November 13, 2004


A cloture's

Friday, November 12, 2004

Astor, John Jacob

Astor started a fur-goods shop in New York City about 1786 after learning about the fur trade while aboard the ship that brought him to the U.S. Benefitting

Thursday, November 11, 2004

Vacuum Technology

Typically, the size of these pumps is about 1,000 grams of sorbent material, which retains gas molecules on its surface. They are capable of pumping from atmosphere to 10-2 torr or can be used in series down to 10-5 torr. In most cases the sorbent material is a molecular sieve - that is, a material that has been processed so that it is porous, with pore sizes comparable to the size of molecules,

Wednesday, November 10, 2004

Thun Und Hohenstein, Franz Anton, Prince (f�rst) Zu

Franz Anton was the son of Friedrich, Count von Thun und Hohenstein, and he shared the moderate pro-Czech

Tuesday, November 09, 2004


Plural �Cambiums, or Cambia, � in plants, layer of actively dividing cells between xylem (wood) and phloem (bast) tissues that is responsible for the secondary growth of stems and roots (secondary growth occurs after the first season and results in increase in thickness). Theoretically, the cambium is a single layer of cells, called initial cells; practically, it is difficult to distinguish the initials

Monday, November 08, 2004

Henie, Sonja

Henie began skating when she was six years old. At age 10 she won the Norwegian national figure-skating championship, and

Sunday, November 07, 2004


The two valves of the shell are usually fan-shaped,

Saturday, November 06, 2004

Amphibian, Distribution and abundance

Found in almost every type of environment except the high latitudes in the Arctic, Antarctica, various oceanic islands, and some extremely xeric (dry) deserts, frogs and toads show the greatest diversity in humid tropical environments. Salamanders primarily inhabit the Northern Hemisphere and are most abundant in cool, moist, montane forests;

Friday, November 05, 2004


Any of a group of important rock-forming silicate minerals of variable composition, among which calcium-, magnesium-, and iron-rich varieties predominate.

Thursday, November 04, 2004

Amelung Glass

American glass produced from 1784 to about 1795 by John Frederick Amelung, a native of Bremen in Germany. Financed by German and American promoters, Amelung founded the New Bremen Glassmanufactory near Frederick, Md., U.S., and attempted to establish a self-sufficient community, importing glassworkers and other craftsmen from Germany. The enterprise was encouraged by such

Wednesday, November 03, 2004


Procedure by which a person is permitted to enter or leave a jurisdiction in which he would normally be subject to arrest, detention, or other deprivation. Historically, the habit of princes in granting safe-conducts to foreigners who, as aliens, did not ordinarily enjoy the full protection of the host-country's law developed into the system of diplomatic

Tuesday, November 02, 2004


Pure nitroglycerin is a colourless, oily, somewhat toxic liquid having a sweet, burning taste. It was first prepared in 1846 by the Italian

Monday, November 01, 2004

Great Belt

In the late 1980s construction began on the Great Belt Fixed Link, a bridge and tunnel system connecting Zealand and Funen via the small island