Monday, January 31, 2005


The town has grown up around the Roman monuments for which it is famous. The semicircular theatre, probably built during the reign of the first Roman emperor, Augustus (27 BC - AD 14), is the best preserved of its kind. The tiered

Sunday, January 30, 2005


Any of several saltwater food fishes of the herring family (Clupeidae) that swim up rivers to spawn. Shad of the genus Alosa are rather deep bodied and have a notch in the upper jaw into which the tip of the lower fits. Young shad have small teeth, but the adults are toothless. The flesh of these fishes is considered very good to eat, though bony; the eggs,

Saturday, January 29, 2005

Henley, William Ernest

As a child Henley contracted a tubercular disease that later necessitated the amputation of one foot. His other leg was saved only through the skill and radical new methods of the surgeon

Friday, January 28, 2005

English Literature, Early translations into English

But the earliest literary prose dates from the late 9th century, when King Alfred, eager to improve the state of English learning, led a vigorous program to translate into English �certain books that are necessary for all men to know.� Alfred himself translated St. Gregory I the Great's Pastoral Care, Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy, St. Augustine of Hippo's Soliloquies

Thursday, January 27, 2005

Aristide, Jean-bertrand

Aristide attended a school in Port-au-Prince run by the Roman Catholic Salesian order, and in 1966 he moved to the Salesian seminary at Cap-Haitien and began to prepare for the priesthood.

Wednesday, January 26, 2005


Adad had a twofold aspect, being both the giver and the destroyer of life. His rains caused the land to bear grain and other food for

Tuesday, January 25, 2005

Iron Knob

Town, northeastern Eyre Peninsula, South Australia, 247 miles (397 km) northwest of Adelaide by rail. It is the centre for one of the richest deposits of iron ore in the Southern Hemisphere. Mining rights were acquired in 1897, and in 1901 the Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Ltd. (BHP), began developing the deposits of iron ore in Iron Knob hill. The modern town lies in an extremely arid region

Monday, January 24, 2005

War Finance

Government efforts to finance major wars have frequently led to major changes in the tax system. In the United States, for example, the importance

Sunday, January 23, 2005

Siddons, Sarah

She was the eldest of 12 children of Roger and Sarah Kemble, who led a troupe of traveling actors (and were progenitors of a noted family of actors to a third generation, including a famous granddaughter, Fanny Kemble). Through the special care of her mother in sending

Saturday, January 22, 2005


Named for a son of Colonel Rufus Easton, a St. Louis lawyer who laid out the townsite in 1817, it became a busy river port by the 1830s and still has considerable river traffic. Its industrial growth was stimulated

Friday, January 21, 2005

Baptist Federation Of Canada

Baptist churches were organized in the Maritime Provinces in the latter half of the 18th century, primarily by Baptists who were loyal

Thursday, January 20, 2005

Argentina, The return to democracy

The subsequent process of democratization is discussed in Philip O'Brien and Paul Cammack (eds.), Generals in Retreat: The Crisis of Military Rule in Latin America (1985); Jimmy Burns, The Land that Lost its Heroes: The Falklands, the Post-War, and Alfons�n (1987); M�nica Peralta-Ramos and Carlos H. Waisman (eds.), From Military Rule to Liberal Democracy in Argentina (1987); Colin M. Lewis and Nissa Torrents (eds.), Argentina in the Crisis Years, 1983 - 1990: From Alfons�n to Menem (1993); and Peter Calvert, �Argentina: Decline and Revival,� in Jan Knippers Black (ed.), Latin America, Its Problems and Its Promise: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, 3rd ed. (1998).

Wednesday, January 19, 2005

Dai-ichi Kangyo Bank

Among the businesses the bank developed were commercial banking

Tuesday, January 18, 2005

Amoco Corporation

Formerly (1889 - 1985) �Standard Oil Company (Indiana), � American petroleum corporation that was founded in 1889 by the Standard Oil trust (see Standard Oil Company and Trust) to direct the refining and marketing of oil in the Midwestern states. The company's first refinery, outside Whiting, Ind., produced fuel oil, kerosene, and other petroleum products. Beginning in the late 1890s, the company's production of gasoline rapidly increased

Sunday, January 16, 2005

Ibn Falaquera

His numerous works include Dialogue Between a Philosopher and a Man of Piety; an ethical treatise known as The Balm of Sorrow; an introduction

Saturday, January 15, 2005

'abd Al-rahman Iii

'Abd al-Rahman succeeded his grandfather 'Abd Allah as emir of C�rdoba in October 912 at the age of 21. Because of his intelligence and character he had been the obvious favourite of his grandfather, who had designated him heir presumptive in preference to the other royal princes. In appearance he is described as having been light-skinned, handsome, thickset, and short-legged.

Friday, January 14, 2005

Vance, Cyrus

Vance received his bachelor's degree from Yale University in 1939. Following graduation from the Yale law school in 1942, he enlisted in the navy and served until 1946, after which he joined a Wall

Thursday, January 13, 2005

Theatre, Western, Off-Broadway

This phenomenon developed as a reaction to the commercialism of New York theatre. More experimental plays could be presented in smaller buildings outside the main theatre district. The artistic success of many of these productions meant that some writers (Edward Albee, for example), could graduate to Broadway. Off-Broadway also enabled black playwrights such

Wednesday, January 12, 2005


During the colonial period, Monclova served as the capital of Nueva Extremadura

Tuesday, January 11, 2005

Arts, Central Asian, Siberian tribes

In the virtually contemporary metalwork of Siberian nomads, single animals of the cat family, such as panthers, carry the Altaic tendency of exaggeration further by twisting their bodies into a circle. In slightly later Siberian plaques, subtle openwork is used, a feature rarely present in Altaic or Scythian objects but frequently encountered in the more rounded

Monday, January 10, 2005

Anti-lebanon Mountains

Arabic �Al-jabal Ash-sharqi, or Lubnan Ash-sharqi, �French �Anti-liban, � mountain range that runs northeast-southwest along the Syrian-Lebanese border parallel to the Lebanon Mountains, from which they are separated by the al-Biqa' Valley. The range averages 6,500 feet (2,000 m) above sea level, with several peaks exceeding 8,000 feet (2,400 m). As it runs south, the Anti-Lebanon range is interrupted by a broad shoulder (the Zabadani Saddle) of Mount Hermon, 9,232 feet (2,814 m) high,

Sunday, January 09, 2005

Gobi, Animal life

Animal life is varied, with such large mammals as the wild camel, the kulan (Equus hemionus), the dzheiran gazelle, and the dzeren (an antelope). Przewalski's horse, which once ranged in the western region of the desert, is probably extinct in the wild. Rodents include marmots and gophers, and there are reptiles.

Saturday, January 08, 2005

Stratemeyer, Edward

Stratemeyer worked as a store clerk and, on the side, began writing stories in imitation of those of Horatio

Friday, January 07, 2005

Wage-price Control:

Setting of government guidelines for limiting increases in wages and prices. It is a principal tool in incomes policy (q.v.).

Thursday, January 06, 2005

Mineral, Cyclosilicates

Silicon-oxygen tetrahedrons are linked into rings in cyclosilicate structures, which have an overall Si:O ratio of 1:3. There are three closed cyclic configurations with the following formulas: Si3O9, Si4O12, and Si6O18. The rare titanosilicate benitoite (BaTiSi3O9) is the only mineral that is built with the simple Si3O9 ring. Axinite [(Ca, Fe, Mn)3Al2(BO3)(Si4O12)(OH)] contains Si4O12 rings, along with

Wednesday, January 05, 2005

Gracchus, Gaius Sempronius

Gaius Sempronius was the son of a Roman aristocrat whose family had regularly held the highest offices of state for the past century and was connected to the most

Tuesday, January 04, 2005

Arts, Islamic, The 'Abbasids

It was not until the 'Abbasids assumed power in 750, settling in Baghdad, that the golden age of Arabic literature began. The influx of foreign elements added new colour to cultural and literary life. Hellenistic thought and the influence of the ancient cultures of the Near East, for example, contributed to the rapid intellectual growth of the Muslim community. Its members,

Monday, January 03, 2005

Biblical Literature, Prayer of Manasseh

In some manuscripts of the Septuagint and in two later Christian writings, a pseudepigraphic Prayer of Manasseh is contained. This prayer was composed with reference to II Chron. 33:11 - 18, according to which the wicked Judaean king Manasseh repented and prayed. In the present form the prayer is Greek in origin, but it may have existed in a Hebrew version, of which the Greek is

Sunday, January 02, 2005


Oblasty (province), northwestern Kyrgyzstan, centred on the Talas River valley that follows an essentially east-west axis through the northern portion of the oblasty. Reconstituted in 1990, the oblasty was formed in 1944 and remained in existence until 1956. It was reestablished in 1980 - 88 and once again re-formed in 1990. The population of Talas includes a large concentration of non-Central

Saturday, January 01, 2005

Xia Gui

For a time after his death, Xia may have suffered the same low esteem as other Southern Song academy painters in the eyes of proponents of the new literati, or scholar-amateur, school of painting, for whom professionalism was equated with empty technique and academicism. Zhuang Su wrote in 1298 in Huaji Buyi:He painted landscapes and figures, all very vulgar and debased.